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Local Area Network
A network that interconnects devices over a geographically small area, typically in one building or part of a building. The most popular LAN type is Ethernet.

Last Mile

Sometimes referred to as Local Loop. The final leg of delivering communications connectivity to a resident or customer. Typically seen as an expensive challenge because “fanning out” wires and cables is a considerably expensive and physically difficult task.


The time between initiating a request for data and the beginning of the actual data transfer. Network latency is the delay introduced when a packet is momentarily stored, analyzed and then forwarded.


Light Emitting Diode
A semiconductor light source that emits light in the optical frequency band or the infrared frequency band. LEDs are a major light source for fiber-optical transmission used with multimode fiber in applications that require a low cost light source.

Line Driver

A signal converter which conditions a digital signal to ensure reliable transmission over an extended distance.

Load Balancing

A technique that distributes network traffic along parallel paths in order to maximize the available network bandwidth while providing redundancy.


A type of diagnostic test in which the transmitted signal is returned to the sending device after passing through all or part of a communications link or network.